Vehicle parts, body and interior elements. Car device
Automobile industry is developing rapidly: new technologies are appearing, speed and patency of machines are increasing, their harm to the environment is decreasing, the level of safety is growing, thanks to electronics, fewer functions are assigned to the driver. In this case, the basic structure of the car remains unchanged. Many, exploiting the car, really do not even know what it consists of and how it works. Yes, here is such a paradox. Today we will consider the main details of the car, or rather, its main components and units.
There are three design schemes for auto, the defining feature of which is the drive. It can be front, back and full. The car consists of the following parts:
- Brake system.
- Electrical equipment.
Sometimes car parts classify a fewotherwise, for example, combining the chassis, transmission, steering and braking system into one group of mechanisms called the "chassis". But the essence of this does not change. Let's consider each of the elements in more detail.
The body is not only a beautiful shellcar, but also its bearing part. To the body of modern machines are attached almost all parts. On some SUVs and trucks, the carcass role is played by a special frame. In passenger cars it has long been abandoned for reasons of weight reduction. Car body parts:
- Spars (front and rear);
- engine compartment;
- hinged elements.
This division is very arbitrary, because all partsbodies are connected. Laperons, as a rule, combine into one part with a bottom or are welded to it. They play the role of supports for suspension. The hinged elements of the car body are represented by doors, hood, trunk lid and wings. In this case, the rear wings are usually welded to the frame, and the front ones are removable. On the body you can find glossy, matte or chrome car parts (pens, emblems, other decorative elements).
The chassis consists of the rear and frontsuspension, driving bridges and wheels. Most modern cars are equipped with a front independent suspension type "McPherson". It allows you to make traveling in the car as comfortable as possible. Independent suspension means that each wheel is attached to the body separately. As for the dependent, it has long been obsolete. However, on many cars it is still put on the back. Dependent suspension can be carried out in the form of a rigid beam or - in the case of a rear-wheel drive car - in the form of a driving bridge.
The motor is a source of mechanical energy. It, in turn, creates a torque on the shaft, which moves the wheels. Usually the motor is located in front of the car, but sometimes it is put behind. In addition to the internal combustion engine (ICE), there are also electric and hybrid motors.
In DIC, the chemical energy produced in the processcombustion of fuel, is converted into mechanical. ICE is reciprocating, gas-turbine and rotary-piston. For today, the piston motor is mainly used.
Machines that are driven by an electric motor are called electric vehicles. In this case, batteries are used to generate energy.
The hybrid motor combines the ICE and electric. Their contact occurs with the help of a generator. This type is the most promising, as it, on the one hand, does less harm to the environment than the ICE, and on the other - does not require frequent recharging, like an electric motor.
We continue to study the details of the car superficiallyand go to the transmission. The main purpose of this element is the transfer of torque from the motor shaft to the car's wheels. Transmission consists of:
- Gear boxes (gearbox).
- The leading bridge.
- SHRUS (hinges of equal angular speeds) or cardan transmission.
The clutch is designed to connect the shaftmotor with a gearbox shaft and smooth transmission of torque between them. The gearbox, in turn, reduces the load on the motor by selecting the appropriate gear ratio. In the case of a front-wheel drive, a drive axle is mounted in the transmission housing. If the car has a rear-wheel drive, then it is located behind and in addition plays the role of a beam. CV joints or gimbals are needed in order to transfer torque from the gearbox to the wheels.
The steering angle determines the angle of rotation of the wheels.The steering system is responsible for this process. If something is wrong with it, the car becomes uncontrollable, which can lead to irreversible consequences. The steering consists of a drive and a gear. When the steering wheel turns, special traction sets the wheel at the appropriate angle. To date, there are three types of steering mechanisms: "worm-roller", "rack-sector" and "screw-nut". Large automobile concerns are seriously working to replace mechanical steering systems with electronic ones. Instead of drives and rods there will be a control unit that will turn the wheels with the help of electric motors.
As you can see, there are no unimportantparts. Nevertheless, some of them cause inconvenience in the event of a breakdown, while others can cost lives. It is the latter that include the brakes. They are a system consisting of a series of parts and components that together are aimed at slowing and stopping the machine.
Basically, the braking system is divided into two:working and parking. As can be understood from the title, the first serves to reduce the speed and stop the car completely. The parking system keeps the car in the parking lot. Details of the brake system are represented by such elements as discs, drums, cylinders, pads and drives.
The lion's share of modern cars is equippedfriction brakes, whose work is built on the use of frictional force. For example, fixed pads rub against movable disks. The force is transferred from the pedal to the pads through the hydraulic system.
This includes such parts of the car:
- Consumers of electricity.
- The system that controls the motor.
The battery is a renewableThe source of electricity, which serves mainly to start the motor. When this procedure is performed, the devices are powered from the engine through a generator that converts mechanical energy into electrical energy. When the engine is started, the battery feeds all the appliances on its own.
The generator maintains a constantvoltage and charges the battery while the motor is running. Wiring is represented by a multitude of wires that, like the blood vessels in our body, are distributed throughout the car. They are hiding under the plastic parts of the car's interior.
The motor control system consists of a control unit and a number of different sensors. Consumers of energy are lights, ignition, windshield wipers and other devices.
Internal car parts
Sitting behind the wheel of a car, a person contemplatingset of switches, indicators, levers, buttons and other things. Let's analyze the basic internal control elements of the machine, which are present on almost all models of cars.
Here you can see the status informationthe main systems of your car. Depending on the price of the machine on the dashboard, in addition to information on the speed (speedometer is at all), you can see: at what speed the engine works, what gear is active now, what is the temperature of the coolant, how much in the fuel tank and so on. If the model is equipped with an on-board computer, the following data can also be displayed on the instrument panel: instant fuel consumption, daily mileage, approximate run to refueling,
As you already know, the rotation of the steering wheel leads toturning the wheels. But for a modern car this is not all the functions of this element. Now the steering wheel is installed buttons to control the audio system, climate control and other devices. It all depends on the imagination of the manufacturer.
The podrulovye levers
Virtually all machines are the same andperform the function of activation: lighting, turn signals, wipers and washers. Often under the steering wheel, you can also meet the shift petals. Here, again, it all depends on the concept of the manufacturer.
Here everything is simple. If the car is MKPP, then there are three pedals: clutch, brake and accelerator ("gas"). In the case of the automatic transmission, the clutch pedal is missing.
Roughly speaking, this is the space between the frontchairs. Here is located the gear lever (sometimes it is a washer), the panel of its cladding, the parking brake lever ("handbrake"), all auxiliary switches, coasters, ashtrays and so on.
The central panel
Here you can find regulators and switchesHeating / ventilation systems (air conditioning on expensive cars). Another element of the central panel, which can be found on all machines, is the audio system. Here is a multimedia system, if it is provided for the complete set.
Today we discussed the fundamentalthe device of the car and once again convinced that the car is the most complicated system. Nevertheless, to get acquainted with it on a philistine level, it is enough to have only a little perseverance. Well, in order to thoroughly study the basic details of the car and learn how to repair them, it will take years.