Sources of financing of investment activities. The concept of leasing and its role in investment.
Sources of investment financingactivities are financial assets that are used as investment resources. The structure of the investment process in terms of financing consists of the methods of the activity in question. Sources and methods of financing investments consist in the availability of individual financial resources and reserves of the investor for internal purposes, as well as borrowed funds that are available to the investor or the funds transferred to them, then funds from extra-budgetary funds and funds transferred from the federal budget. The resources of foreign investors can not be ignored.
It should be noted that the sources of financinginvestment activities have a certain classification, so they have, both centralized and extrabudgetary. To the first sources of financing of investment activities, we refer to the federal budget funds, in addition, the finances of the subjects and local budgets. Everything that concerns the rest is the second kind of sources considered. Proceeding from this, decentralized funds include individual enterprise funds, borrowed funds on the basis of loan agreements, foreign investments and developers acting on an individual basis. Own sources of financing absorb the reserves of intra-farm purposes and profits, in addition, deductions from depreciation.
In addition to such a notion as sourcesinvestment methods, there are investment methods. To them it is possible to rank: state, credit, mixed and a way of self-financing. For the names that are discussed above, there are subjects of the real-world market. These are stock exchanges, commercial banks, budgets of three levels and enterprises. Recipients of investments from the state are enterprises that are owned by the state, as well as organizations that participate in the implementation of state programs. Funding for public use inherent in the fundamental principles on which the whole process is built. This is the receipt of the result with a minimum of costs, the nature of the purpose of the use of public resources, the provision of funds to builders and organizations operating under a contract of work. It should be noted that the funds provided by the state are provided in the event that the project of the funded type brings more effectiveness. Sources of financing of investment activity also imply self-financing of investments, where individual sources of financing are the most important. The main source is profit and depreciation.
Leasing as a source of investment financingis the essence of financing the activities of the organization for investment. To the subjects of leasing can be considered a legal entity that carries out this type of activity, that is, transfers property under an agreement. This side is called the lessor. Accordingly, the second party is the recipient of the property under the contract. Those who sell leased property include organizations that manufacture equipment and machines.
All leasing operations are divided into two maingroups: operational and financial leasing. The first type of leasing is the circumstance that the lease term should not provide for a full payback. The Lessor does not cover the costs due to payments of the rental nature of one lessee. Financial leasing is an operation that has a full payback. Payments of the rental destination reimburse the costs and provide a fixed profit for the lessor. The main advantage of using the leasing form provides a good opportunity for enterprises to purchase the necessary equipment without the main capital costs of a one-time nature.