Rinogram: Nasal swabs on eosinophils are a good way to determine the cause of the cold
Determine the cause of a protracted runny nose,which can not be treated with nasal and antibacterial drugs, is difficult enough. A frequent or prolonged runny nose in children attending kindergarten can sometimes be considered normal. But when the runny nose lasts for months and is already chronic, it is worth considering the diagnosis of the nature of its occurrence.
A common cause of chronic rhinitis in children andadults are allergic. Therefore, to determine the etiology of the onset of a runny nose, it is recommended to make a rhinocytogram, hand over the smears from the nose to eosinophils.
What is a rhinocytogram
Rinocytogram (scraping from the nose) is a procedure,It is capable of revealing the pathogenic microflora of the nasal mucosa. Based on the number of eosinophils detected during the survey, it can be concluded that there is a health problem.
The fact is that the treatment of a common cold that hasallergic, is fundamentally different from therapy aimed at eliminating a protracted infectious rhinitis, so if there is such a problem, experienced doctors, in addition to a detailed blood test, prescribe a rhinocytogram.
Smears from the nose to eosinophils help the doctor to determine the cause of a protracted cold.
Very often, a rhinocytogram is also called an analysis for the flora, because during the examination it is determined not only the amount of eosinophils, but also other cells present in the nasal cavity.
What is eosinophils
Eosinophils are a subspecies of leukocytes. The presence of these cells is necessary for an adequate immune response of the organism in the case of the presence of helminths or foreign agents.
When molecules enter the nasal cavitysubstance-causative agent, or begins to develop an infection, it is eosinophils rush to the affected organ and cause an inflammatory reaction. This process is inherent in people with increased susceptibility to a certain kind of allergens.
In case of repeated exposure to the causative agent, a response is triggered and a clinical picture is observed with one or a group of symptoms listed below:
- Persecution in the nasopharynx;
- abundant discharge of mucus from the nose;
- stuffy nasal sinuses.
Sometimes it is difficult to establishetiology of prolonged rhinitis, therefore, as a simplification of diagnosis, patients with chronic rhinitis are prescribed nasal swabs for eosinophils, which allow obtaining material for the rhinocytogram.
How to prepare for a rhinocytogram
There are several rules, observance of which will help to correctly determine the flora of the nose.
It is necessary to stop taking antibiotics 5 days before putting the material in the laboratory.
For two days before collection of scraping is forbiddenuse antibacterial ointments, sprays and drops of steroid type. It is desirable to completely exclude the use of any medication (both in the nasal cavity, and externally).
Before the procedure, you can not wash the nasal cavity even with normal water.
It is also advisable 2-3 hours before the medical manipulation not to brush your teeth and eat, you can drink only water.
Explanation of results
Your task is to pass a smear from the nose to eosinophils, decipher the results and make the diagnosis - the case of the treating doctor.
In addition to the number of eosinophils in secret, other components of the blood are recorded:
- erythrocytes - exceeding the threshold of this fraction in nasal secretion is characteristic of such diseases as influenza, diphtheria, and some other infectious diseases;
- lymphocytes - an increase in this indicator in the mucus of the nose indicates the course of a chronic infectious inflammatory process of the nasal mucosa;
- neutrophils - an increase in this indicator often indicates an acute viral or bacterial infection.
Smear from the nose to eosinophils: the norm and the deviation
Normally, the indicator of the number of eosinophils in nasal secretion is zero. This suggests that in a healthy nasal flora, they should not be.
Also, the eosinophil count may deviate from the norm both in the direction of increasing their number, and also show a negative value.
Increased rate (more than 10%) often indicates that the body has one of the following deviations:
- allergic or non-allergic respiratory diseases;
- nodular periarteritis;
- bronchial asthma;
- Ascaridosis or infection with another species of helminth;
- leukemia (the disease is characterized by an increased content of eosinophils, not only in nasal secretion, but also in the composition of the blood);
- parasitic infestations.
The deviation of the eosinophil count in the negative direction is also called false-negative. The negative number of eosinophils indicates:
- vasomotor runny nose, which appears due to improper operation of the vessels;
- medicamentous rhinitis, appearing against the background of long-term use of vasoconstrictive and steroid drugs;
- coryza, which is associated with a malfunction of the nervous or endocrine systems.
Smear from the nose to eosinophils: the norm in children from 1 to 14 years
The normal level of eosinophil content in nasal secretion in a child is considered to be between 0.5 and 7%.
Rinocytogram is considered one of the most painless medical manipulations, so often doctors prescribe it to children.
The normal threshold of eosinophils in adults
Knowing the limits of normalthe indicator of this fraction, if your doctor advised to undergo a series of tests, including a swab from the nose to eosinophils. The norm in adult men and women, regardless of sex, varies from 0.5 to 5%.
Any deviation from the norm indicatesthe beginning of the development of the pathological process in the body. Nose smears on eosinophils or rhinocytograms are a good way to diagnose the nature of chronic cold at the initial stage of development.