history and philosophy of science, united in the science of science or the science of science
Very often a comprehensive study of science is calledotherwise as "science of science". However, this term is very controversial. Professor Kopnin in particular believes that science can not be considered an independent science, for it does not have as such a general theory, a unified methodology and a precisely defined methodology. And although the disciplines that relate to the science of science, which are often referred to as logic, history and methodology of science, history and philosophy of science, have a common object, nevertheless they study it from completely different angles, which leads to a practical lack of points contact of these disciplines with each other. As a result, there is an actual lack of a unified theory or at least a complex of theories in science science, which it would be possible to integrate and generalize the complex rationally.
Science science, to be more precise, science-meteorology takes itsbeginning in the works of Price and the followers of his school. At that time, the essence of nakuometry was reduced to the use of statistics and content analysis of scientific publications existing at the time, sources used, the staff of scientists and material resources invested in science. In fact, it was the sociology of science, which studied the dynamics of the development of scientific institutionalization, the emergence and activities of scientific associations, both formal and informal, their fruitfulness and interaction among themselves. However, such a question as the history and philosophy of science was not considered in principle. Gradually, a separate direction emerged in the science of science, which was called the psychology of science. In this direction, the key subject was scientific creativity, its internal intuitive mechanisms and motives, causes and factors of scientific insight of scientists, etc. In parallel, the science of economics, which examined the material specificity of the development of science, developed optimal schemes for financing the scientific field of activity, as well as the influence of economic factors on the branch developmental bias in science, in particular the use of scientific achievements in production and their effectiveness, began to develop as well. The emergence of all these directions and their unification in science meteorology were due to the special influence of science and its achievements on society and its development.
Later, there were such disciplines as logic andethics of science, and many others. The obtained knowledge in these areas allowed to generalize everything known about scientific disciplines and to form a single object and general theories that eventually provoked the emergence of such a science as a philosophy of science. Philosophy in science is one of the sections of philosophy and includes such areas as history and methodology in science, the study of its boundaries, the etymology of science and others. With the development of the philosophy of the scientific direction, special subdivisions, in particular, the history of science, have been singled out in it, which in turn has been divided into narrowly focused components (the history of natural, social and the history of technical sciences, etc.)
The philosophy of science is widely represented in the works asforeign, and domestic scientists. This causes a huge number of original concepts that offer a wide variety of models for the formation and development of sciences and epistemology. However, the key task in each of these concepts is to determine the role and significance of scientific knowledge, the characteristics of practical and theoretical activity, its impact on the development of society. time history and philosophy of science began to be viewed as a single interrelated concept.
Thus, to date, history andthe philosophy of science is a whole complex of scientific directions and schools that answer many questions concerning modern science and the history of its formation and development.